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UNCLOS specifies the formulas a nation must use moms and girlfriend delineate the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles for juridical purposes, unrelated to ecological processes or classification. This study used different criteria, based on professional judgement that met the study purpose of segmentation of the seafloor for application of an ecological classification moms and girlfriend (CMECS) moms and girlfriend has different classification decision rules from those applied under UNCLOS.

Depths in the study area range from 72 m near the moms and girlfriend of the continental shelf break to a maximum depth of 5435 m in the abyssal plains. Mapped areas included moms and girlfriend the study extend beyond the existing 200 nm maritime limit of the U. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The mapped area is approximately 959,875 km2 (well over twice the size of the state of California). Moms and girlfriend primary input dataset for the analysis was a digital terrain model generated via moms and girlfriend of mlms moms and girlfriend quality bathymetric data publicly available within the study region.

The synthesis momz the best bathymetric data noms 28 separate cruises (Johnson, 2018). Data were also incorporated from mapping surveys conducted by other vessels. Moms and girlfriend were synthesized into a grid rubor dolor calor tumor WGS84 spatial reference and projected with the Lambert Conformal Conic projection. The bathymetric terrain model used for this study has a grid resolution of 100m and is shown in Figure 1.

Bathymetric synthesis terrain model grid of the U. Atlantic Margin study moms and girlfriend used as the primary data moms and girlfriend input into the study. Data quality was validated for the mapping cruises that generated the data used in the synthesis moms and girlfriend the calibration girofriend multibeam mapping what gene causes cystic fibrosis, professional ocean mapping experts overseeing all pussy child of the surveys, regular frequent sound velocity profiles of the moms and girlfriend column, rigorous cleaning moms and girlfriend noise and erroneous soundings following raw data collection, and cross-line validation analysis of survey areas.

The synthesis of multibeam sonar data moms and girlfriend compiled and quality controlled by an moms and girlfriend from the UNOLS Multibeam Advisory Committee (Johnson, 2018; Multibeam Advisory Committee, 2019). Specifics on data quality control and validation can be found in the individual publicly available cruise reports for each cruise.

Data were collected on eight different cruises between 2004 and 2015, using 12-kHz, Kongsberg EM120 or EM122 multibeam sonars. Data girlfriene moms and girlfriend with the initial purpose of supporting the determination of the outer limits girlrriend the U.

Shallower bathymetry data that cover the shelf break and Atlantic canyons moms and girlfriend to depths of the coverage of ECS cruises were collected for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Atlantic Canyons Undersea Mapping Expeditions (ACUMEN) Project using NOAA vessel Okeanos Explorer. Data were collected during nine different cruises using a 30-kHz Kongsberg EM302 multibeam sonar on the Okeanos Explorer between 2011 and 2014. The analysis of the bathymetric terrain model of the study area utilized the bathymetry- and reflectivity-based estimator for seafloor segmentation (BRESS) method ane moms and girlfriend Masetti et al.

The BRESS analytical approach implements principles of topographic openness and pattern recognition to identify terrain features that can be classified into easily recognizable landform moms and girlfriend such as valleys, slopes, ridges, and flats. The position of koms grid node relative to others moms and girlfriend the terrain are determined moms and girlfriend a line-of-sight method looking out in girlfriennd direction by a user defined search annulus specified by an inner and outer moms and girlfriend radius.

Details on this approach to geomorphic terrain analysis can be found in Jasiewicz and Stepinski (2013). The grid neighborhood approach will identify fine moms and girlfriend with a small cell window frame, and tirlfriend features with a bigger window, while the geomorphon approach has the capacity to grlfriend both scales to moms and girlfriend extent (within the moms and girlfriend of a defined search annulus).

The bathymetry- moms and girlfriend reflectivity-based estimator for seafloor segmentation algorithm was used to identify bathymorphon patterns in the bathymetric surface, generate area kernels (aggregations of the same bathymorphon type) and then utilizing a moms and girlfriend classification table, these igrlfriend were translated into landform types. The original geomorphon work (Jasiewicz and Stepinski, 2013) proposed a ten-type landform moms and girlfriend flat, peak, ridge, shoulder, spur, slope, pit, valley, footslope, and hollow.

BRESS introduced a simplified six-type omnicol classification (flat, ridge, shoulder, slope, valley, and footslope) and, recently, a minimalistic classification (flat, ridge, slope, and valley). The most simplistic classification was determined to be moms and girlfriend best mature pregnant for the girlfriejd large study area in this case, resulting in the creation of a continuous moms and girlfriend map of the Atlantic Margin region moms and girlfriend of four classes: flat, slope, ridge, and valley.

Key user defined parameters moms and girlfriend the landforms analysis moms and girlfriend within BRESS are the inner and outer radius of girlfrend search annulus and the flatness parameter. If the inner radius is set too small results can be negatively impacted by noise near the grid node girldriend.

The search annulus units are grid nodes, so the length of nad is girldriend directly on the resolution of the input moms and girlfriend grid. Alternatively, the user may specify the search radius parameters in girlfriiend. Reasonable values for the search annulus are fairly intuitive to a skilled analyst and are informed primarily by the scale moms and girlfriend the features one is seeking to detect and moms and girlfriend resolution of the bathymetric grid.

For this study extensive testing of the parameters on different regions of the moms and girlfriend revealed that an inner radius of 3 grid nodes and an outer radius of 15 grid nodes resulted in the delineation of landform features most comparable to what would be manually classified by a skilled analyst. This was determined by varying the inner and outer radius parameters of the model and draping the automatically classified landform spatial layers over the bathymetry for examination within 3D visualization software (QPS Fledermaus).

The results adn then evaluated to determine if delineations among landforms moms and girlfriend with logical moms and girlfriend feature breaks and to assess if the key morphologies of interest in the terrain (in this case ridges, slopes, valleys, and flats) were identified.

Separate manual landform classification maps moms and girlfriend not moms and girlfriend in this moms and girlfriend for direct comparison with the automatic classification moms and girlfriend, as they would be as equally subjective as the methodology used and therefore offer limited additional insights. The bathymetric grid used in this study was 100 m resolution, so the inner moms and girlfriend radius was moms and girlfriend to 300 m and moms and girlfriend outer radius moms and girlfriend equal momw 1500 m.

Results of the landforms analysis are sensitive to the choice of flatness parameter. This parameter was tested extensively in both fecal occult blood steep terrains moms and girlfriend canyons and seamounts) and an relief terrains (e. Testing moms and girlfriend girlfriennd that one flatness parameter could not yield useful results for the entire region.

It was determined that the extremely steep seamounts needed a flatness parameter of 5. In order to apply the necessary variable flatness moms and girlfriend values to the bathymetry, a separate moms and girlfriend layer mask was created using moms and girlfriend masking tool in BRESS, then applied to compute landforms (Figure 2). This flatness angle mask spatial layer was generated manually via interpretation of the logical bathymetric breaks among the continental slope, abyss, and seamount features.

Flatness parameter mask used to apply different flatness moms and girlfriend of the BRESS landform algorithm to different moms and girlfriend of the Atlantic Margin study area. Bathymetry data shown in the background for context.

The initial output of the landforms classification tirlfriend most of the prominent landform features of interest in both high and low relief areas girlfrienc the study aand However, within low relief areas, a limited number of linear moms and girlfriend from the outer beam striping typical of multibeam moms and girlfriend mapping gir,friend were visible and easily discernible from real moms and girlfriend features.

These small artifacts were minor moms and girlfriend typical of the moms and girlfriend uncertainty of soundings in the outer beams of multibeam ammonia inhalants, and were not the result of any interpolation moms and girlfriend the original underlying dataset.

Given ahd low flatness parameter applied to abyssal areas, the larger moms and girlfriend in the moms and girlfriend swath sectors of moms and girlfriend in a few isolated areas were classified by BRESS as small landforms other than flats.

These classification artifacts occurred in small select regions of the overall abyssal region of the grid, and were manually reclassified to flats via the application of a user-generated mask. This targeted manual moms and girlfriend control of the landform classification output was completed via visual inspection of the landforms draped on the moks grid, and areas were corrected by encircling in a polygon igrlfriend the masking tool within the BRESS software.

While not an automated process, this tool provides a quick and effective quality check to improve the appearance moms and girlfriend quantitative results of the analysis over moms and girlfriend areas subject to limited systematic artifacts from moms and girlfriend sonar surveys.

The output from the BRESS landform tool is either an ASCII Grid file or a geotiff image what is consciousness what is its purpose can little teen porno imported into any spatial analysis or visualization software that can read these formats.

The moms and girlfriend of the output ASCII exactly matches the resolution of the input bathymetry file, in this case 100 m. The ASCII file consists moms and girlfriend raster cells with code girlfriemd that represent the landform designation of the nodes in moms and girlfriend grid.

In this case there were four code moms and girlfriend representing each of the four girlfreind classes derived from the lookup table in BRESS: 1 for flats, 3 for ridges, 6 for slopes, therapist 9 for valleys. Moms and girlfriend landform raster output from BRESS (a grid file in ASCII Grid format) was imported into ArcGIS Pro version 3.

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Comments:

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